The figure given below demonstrates the communication model for a project. What role does the component E play in the communications model?
Noise is anything that disrupts the communication method such as static on the telephone line, distracting conversations, or misunderstandings.
Answer option A is incorrect. Static is an example of noise, but it is not part of the communication model.
Answer option D is incorrect. A barrier to communication is when communication cannot happen under the present conditions.
Answer option B is incorrect. A deterrent is not a valid part of the communication model.
Holly is the project manager for her organization. She is creating the activity list and would like to tag those activities that are comprised of discrete effort. What is discrete effort?
Discrete effort is a term used to describe the work that can be measured and traced to the components in the work packages. It is the actual work to create the project deliverables. Discrete effort refers to the particular work effort that can be identified and traced as having a direct tie to the final completion of the project- related work breakdown structure components and the deliverables. It is necessary that all the efforts have a specific measurable end product or end result.
Answer options A, D, and C are incorrect. These are not valid definitions of discrete effort.
Fill in the blank with the appropriate word. When activities are logically linked, they become the . __________
An activity is an individual element of work that is logically linked to other activities to form the schedule. Its primary characteristics include an overall duration based upon the resources applied to it (manpower, material, and equipment), as well as a start and completion date that is tied to a work calendar. It also has a relationship with other activities (predecessors and successors).
Beth is the project manager for her organization. Her current project has many deliverables that have been defined at a high level, but the details of the deliverables are still unknown. In her project, Beth is planning in detail only the activities that are most imminent in the project work. This approach to project management planning is known as what?
Rolling wave planning is a technique to plan and do the most imminent project work before moving onto the details that are far off in the project schedule and project plan. Rolling wave planning is a technique for performing progressive elaboration planning where the work to be accomplished in the near future is planned in detail at a low level of the work breakdown structure. The work to be performed within another one or two reporting periods in the near future is planned in detail as work is being completed during the current period.
Answer option D is incorrect. Decomposition is the process of breaking down work packages into the activity list.
Answer options A and C are incorrect. These are not valid project management terms.
You are the project manager of the NHQ Project. You have created the project network diagram as shown in the figure:
You are concerned about a risk on Activity G that if it happens will delay the project by four days. You would like to utilize float for Activity G. How much float is available for Activity G to help offset the risk event?
There is no float available for Activity G because it is on the critical path. Float or total float (TF) is the total amount of time that a schedule activity may be delayed from its early start date without delaying the project finish date, or violating a schedule constraint. It is calculated by using the critical path method technique and determining the difference between the early finish dates and late finish dates.
Answer options B, A, and C are incorrect. There is no float available for Activity G because it is on the critical path.
You are the project manager for the NHQ Project. Management has asked you to create a time estimate for this project although you have only just received the project charter. They would like some idea of how long the project will take based on the information in the project charter. While you are uncomfortable giving any type of estimate at this point, you work with your assigned project to create a quick time estimate. What type of estimate have you created for management?
The rough order of magnitude (ROM) estimate is used early in the project when there is not much information available to create a time estimate. Rough order of magnitude estimates can have a range of variance as large as -25% to +75 percent. While ROM is mostly used with cost estimates, it can be used with time estimates too. Rough order of magnitude (ROM), also known as ball park estimate, is a rough approximation, made with a degree of knowledge and confidence that the estimated figure falls within a reasonable range of values. ROM range can vary from half to twice (-50 to +100) the actual cost.
Answer option B is incorrect. Broad estimate is not a valid time estimating type.
Answer option D is incorrect. Expert judgment is what the project manager used in this scenario to create the time estimate, but it is not a time estimating type.
Answer option A is incorrect. An analogous estimate is based on historical information from a similar project. For example, Project A took 8 months to complete and Project B, while similar but larger, will take 10 months to complete.
You are the project manager of a project that has a budget of $675,000 and you have completed 40 percent of the project work. Your project is supposed to be 60 percent complete but you are actually only 40 percent complete. Due to some errors, however, you have actually spent $335,000 of the budget. Management wants to know what the project's cost performance index (CPI) is. What value do you report?
Cost performance index (CPI) is used to calculate performance efficiencies. It is used in trend analysis to predict future performance. CPI is the ratio of earned value to actual cost. The CPI is calculated based on the following formula: CPI = Earned Value (EV) / Actual Cost (AC) If the CPI value is greater than 1, it indicates better than expected performance, whereas if the value is less than 1, it shows poor performance. The CPI value of 1 indicates that the project is right on target. In this instances it is $270,000 divided by $335,000 for a CPI of .81.
Answer option B is incorrect. .67 is actually the schedule performance index.
Answer option D is incorrect. -$65,000 is the cost variance for the project.
Answer option A is incorrect. -$135,000 is the schedule variance of the project.
You are the project manager of the AHQ project. This project is scheduled to last for six months and will require $345,000 to complete. If the project completes earlier than scheduled, your organization will receive a bonus of $5,000 per day of early completion. Management has asked you to develop an aggressive schedule to realize as much of the bonus as possible, but management does not want you to increase the costs of the project beyond $1,000 per day of the bonus realization. Which of the following approaches will likely add costs to the project?
Crashing adds labor to the project. This approach adds costs to the project because you will have to pay for the added labor.
Answer option B is incorrect. Fast tracking allows entire phases to overlap in the project. This approach adds risks to the project.
Answer option D is incorrect. The critical chain method considers the availability of project resources.
Answer option A is incorrect. Adding lead time to activities allows activities to overlap and does not add project costs.
You work as a project manager for BlueWell Inc. Management has asked you not to communicate performance unless the CPI is less than 0.96 or the SPI dips below 0.98. What type of report would you create for management, if these instances develop in your project?
The best answer is simply an exception report. An exception report refers and documents the major mistakes, mishaps, and goofs. In other words, it itemizes the important and critically significant piece of documentation that is vital to the proper and effective functioning of a project. It does not document what has gone right, but rather documents what has gone wrong.
Answer option C is incorrect. A performance management report is not a valid project management report.
Answer option A is incorrect. The question is asked about cost and schedule so this answer would not be appropriate for both the cost and the schedule.
Answer option D is incorrect. The question is asked about cost and schedule so this answer would not be appropriate for both the cost and the schedule.
You work as a project manager for BlueWell Inc. Your project is falling behind though the project team reports that the actual durations of their work is what they estimated. You investigate the cause and determine that the project team is not starting their assignments early enough to finish their work on time. While the duration of the assignments may be in synchronization with the duration estimates, the completion time is causing the project schedule to slip from the baseline. What can you do to rectify this problem?
Corrective actions should be taken to move the results of the project work back into alignment with the project scope. The project team must start their activities on time and finish on time. A corrective action is a change implemented to address a weakness identified in a management system. Normally corrective actions are implemented in response to a customer complaint, abnormal levels of internal nonconformity, nonconformities identified during an internal audit or adverse or unstable trends in product and process monitoring such as would be identified by SP
C. It is method of identifying and eliminating the causes of a problem, thus preventing their reappearance. Examples of a corrective action are :Improvements to maintenance schedulesImprovements to material handling or storage
Answer option C is incorrect. Management reserve is time and funds allotted for unforeseen issues and risks within the project.
Answer option A is incorrect. Padding each estimate may cause the project to succumb to Parkinson's Law: work expands to fill the amount of time allotted to it. In addition, the project team may still delay the start time of their project assignments.
Answer option B is incorrect. Disciplining the project team may be a good option if the problem continues. The best option is to first apply corrective actions.
You have created the project network diagram for the ABC project. You are exploring total float and free float for that project. Martin, a project team member, wants to know the difference between total float and free float. What is the difference between total float and free float?
Total float is the time you can delay an activity without delaying the project end date, whereas free float is on each activity and does not affect the early start date of successor activities. Float, also called slack, is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without affecting any subsequent activities. There are two types of floats available: Free Float: It is the amount of time a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediately following schedule activities. Total Float: It is the total amount of time that a schedule activity may be delayed from its early start date without delaying the project finish date, or violating schedule constraint. Float is calculated by using the critical path method technique.
Answer options C, A, and D are incorrect. These are not accurate definitions of free float and total float.
You are the project manager of the OOI Project and you're forty percent complete with this project. The project has a BAC of $2,345,650 and you have spent $950,000 to date. Based on your aggressive scheduling you should at the 45 percent milestone today, but due to some early delays you're running late. What is the schedule variance of your project?
The schedule variance is the earned value minus the planned value. In this instance, it is $938,260-$1,055,543 = -$117,282. Schedule variance (SV) is a measure of schedule performance on a project. The variance notifies that the schedule is ahead or behind what was planned for this period in time. The schedule variance is calculated based on the following formula: SV = Earned Value (EV) - Planned Value (PV) If the resulting schedule is negative, it indicates that the project is behind schedule. A value greater than 0 shows that the project is ahead of the planned schedule. A value of 0 indicates that the project is right on target.
Answer option D is incorrect. This is the cost variance for the project.
Answer option A is incorrect. This is the variance at completion.
Answer option C is incorrect. This is the inverse of the earned value.
Holly is the project manager of the NDS project and she is 85 percent complete with her project though she should be 95 percent complete. Her project has a BAC of $9,850,400 and she has spent $8,011,221 to date. What is Holly's schedule performance index for this project?
The schedule performance index is found by dividing the earned value by the planned value. For Holly's project, it would be as follows:
SPI = EV/PV
Schedule performance index (SPI) is the measure of schedule efficiency on a project. It is used in trend analysis to predict future performance. SPI is the ratio of earned value to planned value. The SPI is calculated based on the following formula:
SPI = Earned Value (EV) / Planned Value (PV)
If the SPI value is greater than 1, it indicates better than expected performance, whereas if the value is less than 1, it shows poor performance. The SPI value of 1 indicates that the project is right on target.
Answer option D is incorrect. Ten percent is not a valid calculation for this question.
Answer option B is incorrect. 0.98 is the cost performance index.
Answer option A is incorrect. 1.07 is the to-complete performance index based on the BAC.
Laura is the project manager for her organization and management has requested her to create a report on her project's performance. Laura needs to analyze her current project performance and then compare it against what, in order to create a performance report?
The performance measurement baseline, which can be comprised of cost, scope, and schedule, is the foundation for creating a performance report.
Answer option B is incorrect. The scope baseline will only reflect the performance of the scope, whereas performance reports typically need scope, time, and cost as its foundation.
Answer option A is incorrect. Cost variances and the cost performance index are cost values that must be considered along with the scope performance and schedule performance.
Answer option D is incorrect. Only reporting performance on the schedule is not enough for a performance report. Laura should also report on scope and cost at a minimum.
Amy is working on a project which is forty percent complete though it was scheduled to be fifty percent complete as of today. Management has asked Amy to report on the schedule variance for her project. If Amy's project has a BAC of $750,000 and she has spent $485,000 to date, what is the schedule variance value?
The schedule variance is found by subtracting the planned value from the earned value. The earned value is the percentage of the project completeness multiplied by the BA
C. Planned value is the percentage of where the project should be at this time multiplied by the BA
C. Schedule variance (SV) is a measure of schedule performance on a project. The variance notifies that the schedule is ahead or behind what was planned for this period in time. The schedule variance is calculated based on the following formula: SV = Earned Value (EV) - Planned Value (PV) If the resulting schedule is negative, it indicates that the project is behind schedule. A value greater than 0 shows that the project is ahead of the planned schedule. A value of 0 indicates that the project is right on target. In this example, EV = 40% of BAC = 300,000, and PV = 50% of BAC = 375,000 SV = 300,000 - 375,000 = -75,000
Answer options C, B, and D are incorrect. These are not the correct values for the schedule variance.
You are the project manager of the NHQ project. Your project has a budget of $1,258,456 and is scheduled to last for three years. Your project is currently forty percent complete though it should be forty-five percent complete. In order to reach this point of the project, you have spent $525,000. Management needs a performance report regarding the NHQ project. Management is concerned that this project will be over budget upon completion. What is the estimate at completion for this project that you will need to report to management?
The estimate at completion can be calculated by dividing the budget at completion by the cost performance index. Here, CPI =EV/AC=(0.40*1,258,456)/525000 = 0.95882 EAC = BAC/CPI = 1,258456/0.95882 = 1,312,504 What is Estimate at Completion (EAC)? Estimate at Completion (EAC) is a field that displays the final cost of the project including the actual costs and the forecast of remaining costs based on the cost performance index (CPI) so far. The formula used to calculate this estimate is as follows: ACWP+(BAC-BCWP)/CPI
Answer option D is incorrect. $787,504 is the estimate to complete.
Answer option A is incorrect. -$62,922.80 is the schedule variance.
Answer option C is incorrect. This is not a valid calculation for this question.
Which of the following scheduling techniques identifies the successor activities and the predecessor activities to assist the project manager in sequencing the project work?
The Precedence Diagramming Method uses both predecessors and successors as nodes in the project network diagram. The PDM approach is the most common network diagram approach used.
Answer option C is incorrect. Dependency determination identifies the order of the project work.
Answer option B is incorrect. The schedule network template is a tool that uses a previous project network diagram as a base for the current project network diagram.
Answer option D is incorrect. Activity on the node places activities on circles within a network diagram. It is an example of the precedence diagramming method.
You work as a project manager for BlueWell Inc. There have been changes to the project scope in your project. These changes will cause the project schedule to change as well, so you will need to update the schedule and the schedule baseline. The schedule baseline is a component of what?
The schedule baseline is a required component of the project management plan. Project management plan is a formal, agreed document that defines how the project is executed, monitored and controlled. It may be summary or detailed and may be composed of one or more subsidiary management plans and other planning documents. The objective of a project management plan is to define the approach to be used by the project team to deliver the intended project management scope of the project. The project manager creates the project management plan with the inputs from the project team and key stakeholders. The plan should be agreed and approved by at least the project team and its key stakeholders.
Answer option C is incorrect. The schedule baseline is not a project objective.
Answer option A is incorrect. The project calendar defines when the project will take place.
Answer option B is incorrect. Project constraints are restrictions imposed on the project, such as time, cost, and scope.
Marty is the project manager of the recently completed NHK Project. The project was deemed successful by the project customer and they have signed the formal acceptance documentation. Marty has written the final project report, released the project team, and completed the lessons learned documentation. What else should Marty do in the closure of the NHK Project?
The last duty of a project manager is to archive the project records as part of the organizational process assets.
Answer option B is incorrect. The cost summary is included in the final project report.
Answer option C is incorrect. The project variance is included in the final project report as it shows cost performance.
Answer option D is incorrect. A project office is an organization within the company that oversees and supports project. Marty would not close the project office.
Gary is the project manager of the NHF project, which is a part of a program in his organization. According to the PMBOK, how will Gary provide feedback to programs and portfolios?
According to the PMBOK, the project manager provides the feedback to programs and portfolios by means of status reports and change requests that may impact other projects, programs, or portfolios. The needs of the projects, including the resource needs, are rolled up and communicated back to the portfolio level, which in turn sets the direction for organizational planning. What is a status report? A status report is a narrative description about a subject that is relevant to an organization. Typically, a user submits a status report that was created for him by a manager. He can also create and submit his own unrequested status report at any time. It is a collaborative feature specific to PW
A. Status report in PWA is a convenient way to exchange textual information with the team members about the status of a project or items in addition to task progress, which a user updates on the Tasks page. What are change requests? Change requests are requests to expand or reduce the project scope, modify policies, processes, plans, or procedures, modify costs or budgets or revise schedules. These requests for a change can be direct or indirect, externally or internally initiated, and legally or contractually imposed or optional. A Project Manager needs to ensure that only formally documented requested changes are processed and only approved change requests are implemented.
Answer option C is incorrect. While regular communication is needed, this is not the best answer for the question.
Answer option A is incorrect. Status meetings are a part of project communications, but do not answer the question as completely as status reports and change requests.
Answer option B is incorrect. Push communications is one type of communicating mode where the project manager pushes the information to recipients. This is not the best choice for the question because there are other modes communicating as well.
Which of the group creativity techniques enhances brainstorming with a voting process used to rank the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or prioritization?
The various group creativity techniques are as follows: Brainstorming: It is a technique used to generate and collect multiple ideas related to the project and product requirements. Nominal group technique: It is a technique used to enhance brainstorming with a voting process used to rank the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or prioritization. Delphi technique: It is a techniques used to identify potential risk. In this technique, the responses are gathered via a questionnaire from different experts and their inputs are organized according to their contents. Idea/mind mapping: It is a technique used to map the ideas generated by brainstorming to reflect the commonality and differences in understanding and generating new ideas. Affinity diagram: It is a technique used to allow a large number of ideas to be sorted into groups for review and analysis.
Examine the figure given below:
If Activity B takes eight days to complete instead of five days as schedule, how long can you now delay Activity H?
Activity B is not on the critical path and it has a total of four days of float. If Activity B takes a total of eight days, it will consume three days of float. However, the total duration of the path ABEHJ may not exceed 26 days, as this is the total duration for the project. Although Activity H has a total of four days of float available, the consumption of three days of float on this path will reduce the total float for Activity H to just one day. If Activity H is delayed by more than one day, then the project will be late.
Answer option D is incorrect. There is one day of float still available for Activity H.
Answer options A and C are incorrect. These are not the valid answers, as there is just one day of float available for Activity H.
Mary is the project manager for her company. She's working with the project team to compress the project schedule as the project must be completed by December 30. For some of the project activities, she and the project team have agreed to crash the project work. What must be true of these project activities for crashing to be acceptable?
Crashing is the addition of project resources to complete effort-driven activities in faster time. By adding more labor the activity can be completed faster. Crashing is a schedule compression technique to obtain the greatest amount of compression for the least incremental cost. Crashing works for activities where additional resources will shorten the duration. Approving overtime, bringing in additional resources, paying to expedite delivery to activities on the critical path are examples of crashing.
Answer option A is incorrect. An activity of fixed duration, such as printing 100,000 brochures in a printing press, won't be completed faster by adding more effort.
Answer option D is incorrect. Activities need not be risk-free to use project crashing.
Answer option C is incorrect. All effort-driven activities are susceptible to the Law of Diminishing Returns. By adding more labor the value of the yield of the work decreases because of the cost of the labor added to the project work.
You are the project manager of the NHQ project. This project deals with a new technology that your company has never used before. You have petitioned the management to hire a consultant to help you and the project team to create the WBS, the activity list, and complete the duration estimates. The management is concerned about the costs of the consultant, but agrees to your request because of the nature of this new work. The consultant can best be described as what type of resource for this project?
The consultant is an example of expert judgment, as he is helping you and the project team to create the project elements. Expert judgment is a technique based on a set of criteria that has been acquired in a specific knowledge area or product area. It is obtained when the project manager or project team requires specialized knowledge that they do not possess. Expert judgment involves people most familiar with the work of creating estimates. Preferably, the project team member who will be doing the task should complete the estimates. Expert judgment is applied when performing administrative closure activities, and experts should ensure the project or phase closure is performed to the appropriate standards.
Answer option A is incorrect. The consultant may be considered a direct expense because the fees can only be assigned to your project work, but this is not the best choice for the question.
Answer option B is incorrect. An external requirement is not a valid choice for this question.
Answer option C is incorrect. A temporary resource is not a valid project management term.
John works as the project manager for Blue Well Inc. He is identifying the phases within the scope of work for the project plan. Which of the following can be categorized as a project phase? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose all that apply.
A phase is a combination of associated activities that represent a distinct stage within a project. A phase can have distinct start and finish dates and include several stages of planning and work. Each project has a defined scope of work, such as a unique product or service. Some examples of phases within the scope of work for a project plan are conceptual engineering, pre-construction, and engineering.
Answer option A is incorrect. Concrete is an activity, not a project phase.
You have 83 project stakeholders from all across your organization. Some of the stakeholders, such as functional management, require weekly communication from you, while other stakeholders, such as the end users, only need quarterly progress updates. Where can you record this communication requirements based on your stakeholder analysis?
The project communications management plan is a document to define who needs what information, when the information is needed, and the modality the information is expected. Stakeholder communication preferences are also recorded here. What is Project Communication Management? Project Communications Management is one of the nine Knowledge Areas. It employs the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval, and ultimate disposition of project information. The following processes are part of Project Communications Management: Identify Stakeholders
Manage Stakeholder Expectations
The Project Communications Management processes provide the critical links among people and information that are necessary for successful communications. These processes interact with each other and with the processes in the other Knowledge Areas as well.
Answer option D is incorrect as the project scope management plan defines how the scope is created, managed, how changes to the scope are managed, and how the scope is validated.
Answer option B is incorrect as the project reporting structure defines who reports to whom, not the preferences and requirements for communication.
Answer option C is incorrect as the project schedule defines when project activities are to occur.
Lara has been assigned to a construction project. The project includes constructing a residential building with fifty flats. On which of the following events will the project be considered successful?
A project is considered successfully completed when the stakeholder needs and expectations are met or exceeded. What is a project? In project management a project consists of a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result. An other definition is a management environment that is created for the purpose of delivering one or more business products according to a specified business case. Project have the following characteristics: They are unique. They are temporary in nature and have a definite beginning and ending date. They are completed when the project goals are achieved. Their success is measured by evaluating whether they meet or exceed expectations of the stakeholders. Project objectives define target status at the end of the project, reaching of which is considered necessary for the achievement of planned benefits. A project should be specific, measurable achievement, achievable, realistic, time bounded, ethical and recorded. The evaluation (measurement) occurs at the project closure. However a continuous guard on the project progress should be kept by monitoring and evaluating. Who are project stakeholders? Project stakeholders are those entities within or without an organization, which: Sponsor a project or, Have an interest or a gain upon a successful completion of a project. Examples of project stakeholders include the customer, the user group, the project manager, the development team, the testers, etc. Stakeholders are anyone who has an interest in the project. Project stakeholders are individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be affected as a result of project execution or project completion. They may also exert influence over the project's objectives and outcomes. The project management team must identify the stakeholders, determine their requirements and expectations, and, to the extent possible, manage their influence in relation to the requirements to ensure a successful project.
Answer options D, C, and B are incorrect. These events are not the measurement of the project's success.
You are the project manager of the NHA Project. This project is expected to last one year with quarterly milestones throughout the year. Your project is supposed to be at the third milestone today, but you are likely to be only 60 percent complete. Your project has a BAC of $745,000 and you have spent $440,000 of the budget-to-date. What is your cost variance for this project?
The cost variance is the earned value minus the actual costs. In this project, you have spent less than what the project is worth, so the project has a positive cost variance. Cost variance (CV) is a measure of cost performance on a project. The variance notifies if costs are higher than budgeted or lower than budgeted. The cost variance is calculated based on the following formula: CV = Earned Value (EV) - Actual Cost (AC) A positive value means that spending is less than budgeted, whereas a negative value indicates that costs are higher than originally planned for the project.
Answer option B is incorrect. -$111,750 is the cost variance of the project.
Answer option A is incorrect. This is the variance at completion for the project.
Answer option C is incorrect. There is a cost variance, albeit a positive one.
Kay is the project manager of the QUI Project. This project is done but is also considerably over budget. Kay has elected to crash the project in order to recoup schedule delays but this increased the project costs. What should Kay do with the information regarding the schedule delays and cost overruns?
When there have been significant corrective action decisions the reasoning behind the decision should be documented in the lessons learned documentation. What is lessons learned documentation? Lessons learned documentation is prepared to contribute to the lessons learned knowledge database of the organization. It includes the causes of issues, the reasoning behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned about stakeholder management. Lessons learned are documented so that they become part of the historical database for the project/program and the performing organization. The lessons learned are compiled, formalized, and stored through out the project's/program's duration.
Answer option C is incorrect. A variance report may be appropriate but cost and schedule variances are reported differently. Kay could create a cost variance report and a schedule variance report, but not one report for both project attributes.
Answer option B is incorrect. An exceptions report is the same as a variance report. Kay would create a separate exceptions report for cost, and another for schedule.
Answer option D is incorrect. The information may go into the project final report but it should be included in the project's lessons learned information when it is discovered.
You work as a project manager for BlueWell Inc. Some of the activities in your project are not being completed on time. You reviewed these activities with your project team and discovered that the time estimates for the project are much more aggressive than what they are actually experiencing in the completion of the activities. You elect to create a new schedule for the project. What project Management process are you working with when you create a new target schedule?
In severe cases, new schedule duration estimates with new forecasted start and finish dates are needed. In these instances, it is an example of using the control schedule process. Control schedule process is a method of monitoring the status of the project to update project progress and deal with the changes to the schedule baseline. It is concerned with:
Determining the current status of the project
Influencing the factors that create schedule changes
Determining that the project schedule has changed
Managing the actual changes as they occur
Control schedule is a component of the Perform Integration Change Control process.
Answer option D is incorrect. The activity resources would only address the addition or replacement of resources needed to complete the project work.
Answer option B is incorrect. This is a tempting choice, but new schedules are a part of the control schedule process.
Answer option A is incorrect. Develop schedule is not the best choice for this question.
You are the project manager of the NHQ project. This project is scheduled to last for six months and will require $345,000 to complete. If the project completes earlier than scheduled, your organization will receive a bonus of $5,000 per day for the early completion. Management has asked you to develop an aggressive schedule to realize as much of the bonus as possible, but you must be careful not to increase project risk beyond an acceptable level of risk exposure. Which of the following approaches is most likely to increase project risk?
Fast tracking allows entire phases of the project to overlap and this action does increase risks. This is an approach that you would want to avoid in your project.
Answer option B is incorrect. Crashing adds labor to the project and typically drives project costs.
Answer option A is incorrect. The critical chain method considers the availability of project resources as part of its network diagramming technique.
Answer option C is incorrect. Lead time allows project activities to overlap and may introduce project risks, but not to the extent of using fast tracking.
In which of the following group decision making techniques does the largest block in a group decide the group decision even if a bulk is not achieved?
The various techniques of group decision making are as follows: Unanimity: In this technique, everyone agrees on a single course of action. Majority: In this technique, more than 50% of the members of the group support the decisions. Plurality: In this technique, the largest block in a group decides even if a bulk is not achieved. Dictatorship: In this technique, one individual makes the decision for the group.
Paula works as a project manager for her organization. She is working with the project team to define the activity attributes. Which of the following is NOT a valid activity attribute?
Risk events are not associated with the activity attributes, but are recorded in the project risk register. Risk events are the distinct and particular occurrence that negatively affects a decision or a plan. Activity attributes are an output of the Define Activity process. These attributes refer to the multiple components that frame up an activity. The components for each activity during the early stages of the project are the Activity ID, WBS ID, and Activity name. At the later stages, the activity attributes include Activity codes, Predecessor activity, activity description, logical relationship, successor activity, leads and lags, imposed dates, and constraints and assumptions. Activity attributes are used for schedule development and for ordering, selecting, and sorting the planned schedule activities in a number of ways within reports.
You are the project manager of the HGH Project. Thomas, your project sponsor, asked you to submit status reports every week, but now he wants you to submit the status reports every other week. What project management plan would you need to update to reflect this change from Thomas?
The communications management plan needs to be updated whenever there is a change in the frequency, type, or audience of communication. The communication management plan is a document that contains information that is required by the stakeholders. It also documents when and how the information should be distributed. It describes the information delivery needs, its format and level of detail. The communication management plan is contained in or is a subsidiary of the project management plan.
Answer option D is incorrect. The project management plan is a collection of subsidiary plans, including the communications management plan.
Answer option A is incorrect. The scope of the project is not being changed in this example, so there is no need to update the plan.
Answer option B is incorrect. There is no plan by the name of performance management plan, so this choice is incorrect.
All of the following statements about the critical path are false except for which one?
The only statement that is true is that the critical path shows the project's earliest date for completion. A critical path is the sequence of project activities, which add up to the longest overall duration. This determines the shortest time possible to complete the project. Any delay of an activity on the critical path directly impacts the planned project completion date (i.e. there is no float on the critical path). A project can have several, parallel, near critical paths. An additional parallel path through the network with the total durations shorter than the critical path is called a sub-critical or non-critical path. These results allow managers to prioritize activities for the effective management of project completion, and to shorten the planned critical path of a project by pruning critical path activities, by "fast tracking" (i.e., performing more activities in parallel), and/or by "crashing the critical path" (i.e., shortening the durations of critical path activities by adding resources).
Answer option C is incorrect. There can be more than one critical path, as two paths in the project network diagram can both take the same amount of time and be longer than any other paths in the project.
Answer option A is incorrect. The critical path can be, and often is, crashed with extra resources in an attempt to recover the project schedule.
Answer option B is incorrect. The critical path is the longest path to project completion.
Andy is the project manager for his project. Andy and his project team are identifying stakeholders who can significantly impact the project, what the level of participation for each identified stakeholder may be, and classifying the stakeholders by common characteristics, concerns, and their perception of the project. Andy and his project team want to define an approach as a result of this information to gain support from the stakeholders for their project. What should Andy and his project team create in this scenario?
Andy and his project team are creating the stakeholder management strategy. The goal is to identify a method to gain support through communications for the project. The stakeholder management strategy is an approach to raise the support and decrease negative impacts of stakeholders during the complete project life cycle. It consists of the following essential elements: Key stakeholders who can significantly impact the project Level of participation in the project desired for each identified stakeholder Stakeholder groups and their management
Answer option B is incorrect. The stakeholder register contains the stakeholder's identification information, assessment information, and stakeholder classification, but not the management strategy.
Answer option A is incorrect. Stakeholder assessment information is part of the stakeholder register.
Answer option C is incorrect. The communications management plan defines how and when communication will happen.
Amy works as a project manager for BlueWell Inc. She is working on the SDI project, which has a BAC of $2,816,000. She is currently 20 percent complete with this project, though she should be 25 percent complete with the project work. The project has consumed $495,000 of the project budget to date. Management has asked her the project's Estimate To Complete (ETC) based on the current project performance. What is the ETC for this project?
The estimate to complete is about knowing how much more money the project will need to complete its objectives. The estimate to complete (ETC) is the expected cost needed to complete all the remaining work for a scheduled activity, a group of activities, or the project. ETC helps project managers predict what the final cost of the project will be upon completion. The formula for the ETC is EAC- AC. The EAC is BAC/CPI. Here it is,
CPI = EV/AC
EAC = BAC/ CPI
= 2,474,952 (Approx)
ETC = EAC - AC
= 2,474,952 - 495,000
Answer options C and A are incorrect. These are not the valid answers for this question.
Answer option D is incorrect. This is the estimate at completion based on the current project performance.
What schedule analysis simulation tool allows you, the project manager, to review possible combinations of events such as optimistic, most likely and pessimistic outcomes for your project?
The Monte Carlo simulation tool allows a project manager to explore "what-if" analysis for the project schedule and possible combinations of events in the project. Monte Carlo simulation is a process for iteratively evaluating a deterministic form using sets of random numbers as inputs. This method is repeatedly used when the model is complex, nonlinear, or involves more than just a couple of vague parameters. Monte Carlo simulation is named after the city in Monaco, where the major attractions are casinos that have games of chance. Gambling games, such as roulette, dice, and slot machines, exhibit random behavior. This technique works particularly well when the process is one where the underlying probabilities are known but the results are more difficult to determine. It is a process that generates hundreds or thousands of probable performance outcomes based on probability distribution for cost and schedule on individual tasks. The outcomes are then used to generate a probability distribution for the project as a whole.
Answer option D is incorrect. GERT is the Graphical Evaluation Review Technique and is a visual mapping of the project work including branches and loop backs within the project.
Answer option A is incorrect. PERT is the Program Evaluation and Review Technique and is used for project scheduling and time estimating.
Answer option C is incorrect. PMIS is a project management information system, such as Microsoft Project, and often includes what-if analysis tools, but it's not the best answer for this question.
You are the project manager for the GHY Project. This project has stakeholders, both internal and external, that need to receive performance reports from you on a regular basis. You have decided that in addition to emailing the weekly performance report, you will also keep the performance reports available on your secured project management Website. The Website is an example of what type of communication reporting?
A Website is an example of a pull communication. This means the information is available, but the reader must go to the source and retrieve the information. Pull communication is defined by what the reader wants and what interests he has in retrieving the information. In other words, the information is available, but the reader must go to the source and retrieve the information. This type of communication is used by advertising agencies to draw clients into retail establishments to receive messages. Customers decide on when and how they will act on the messages in the pull model of communications. Some virtual examples of pull communication are:
Answer option D is incorrect. This does not describe the communication model or how information is distributed.
Answer option C is incorrect. Passive communication is a not a project management term to describe communications.
Answer option B is incorrect. Push communication describes the process of delivering the communication to the recipients, such as through email.
Fill in the blank with an appropriate phrase. The ________is defined in terms of either the product or the type of customer or industry sector.
The application area is defined as a type of project that comprises common components important in such projects, but are not required or present in all projects. The application area is defined in terms of either the product or the type of customer or industry sector.
What forecasting method would your project use if your project customer requires an autoregressive moving average for performance forecasting?
The autoregressive moving average is an example of a causal/econometric method for the forecasting project performance. The casual/econometric forecasting method uses the assumption that it is possible to identify the underlying factors, which might influence the variable being forecasted. For example, sales of umbrellas might be associated with weather conditions. If the causes are understood, projections of the influencing variables can be made and used in the forecast. Some examples of casual/econometric forecasting method are as follows: Regression analysis using linear regression or non-linear regression Autoregressive moving average (ARMA) Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) Econometrics
Answer option B is incorrect. The time series method relies on the earned value, moving average, extrapolation, and growth curve.
Answer option A is incorrect. The judgmental methods use intuition, the Delphi method, and forecast by analogy.
Answer option C is incorrect. The ensemble forecasting is not part of the causal/econometric method for forecasting.
You have created the project network diagram for your project. Management is reviewing the network diagram and they are curious as to why you have included levels of effort activities as start-to-start and finish-to-finish successor activities for work that uses particular manufacturing equipment. You explained that the levels of effort activities are maintained for the equipment. This relationship and scheduling scenario is also known as what term?
This is also known as a hammock activity, as the SS and FF relationship hangs off of the activities in the project network diagram. A hammock activity is a schedule or project planning term for grouping of subtasks that "hangs" between two end dates it is fixed to. It groups subtasks that are not related in the hierarchical sense of a Work Breakdown Structure. It also groups subtasks that are not related in a logical sense of a dependency where one subtask must wait for another. A hammock activity usually refers to report information that is time-dependent and lasts from the initial to the latest date of the activities it encompasses. By using a hammock activity, the top management is able to see an overview of the project without being besieged by details.
Answer option D is incorrect. Finish-to-start is the most common relationship between project activities in the project network diagram.
Answer option A is incorrect. Project management overhead describes the work that supports the project objectives, but is not linked directly to the project deliverables.
Answer option C is incorrect. A subproject is a discrete set of work that contributes to the project, but branches off the primary project work. A subcontract portion of the project is an example of a subproject.
Your project team has identified a project risk that must be responded to. The risk has been recorded in the risk register and the project team has been discussing potential risk responses for the risk event. The event is not likely to happen for several months but the probability of the event is high. Which one of the following is a valid response to the identified risk event?
Corrective actions include contingency plans and workaround plans, which are valid risk responses.
Answer option B is incorrect. The technical performance measurement may be part of the analysis of the risk, but not part of the response.
Answer option A is incorrect. A risk audit may be appropriate once the risk event and response has been identified.
Answer option C is incorrect. The impact of the risk event may affect earned value management calculations, but EVM in and of itself is not a valid risk response.
You work as a project manager for BlueWell Inc. You are in the process of identifying all the people and organization impacted by the project. Mark, a project team member, has some doubts about the inputs of the Identify Stakeholder process. What is referred to as an input to the identify stakeholder process in project communication management?
The project charter is an input to the identify stakeholder process. It provides information about the internal and external parties concerned and is affected by the project. The project charter is the document that formally authorizes a project. The project charter provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities. According to PMBOK Guide, the project charter should address the following information:
Requirements that satisfy customer, sponsor, and other stakeholder needs, wants and expectations Business needs, high-level project description, or product requirements that the project is undertaken to address
Project purpose or justification
Assigned Project Manager and authority level
Summary milestone schedule
Functional organizations and their participation
Organizational, environmental and external assumptions
Organizational, environmental and external constraints
Business case justifying the project, including return on investment
If required, it also authorizes the next project phase, and updates the charter. The project manager should always be assigned prior to the start of planning, and preferably while the project charter is being developed.
Answer option A is incorrect. Expert judgment is a technique based on a set of criteria that has been acquired in a specific knowledge area or product area. It is obtained when the project manager or project team requires specialized knowledge that they do not possess. Expert judgment involves people most familiar with the work of creating estimates. Preferably, the project team member who will be doing the task should complete the estimates. Expert judgment is applied when performing administrative closure activities, and experts should ensure the project or phase closure is performed to the appropriate standards.
Answer option C is incorrect. Stakeholder analysis is the identification of stakeholder needs, wants and expectations. It involves the documentation, prioritization, and quantification of the needs to help define the project scope. Stakeholders' interests may be positively or negatively affected by execution or completion of the project and they may also exert influence over the project and its deliverables.
Answer option D is incorrect. The stakeholder register is a project management document that contains a list of the stakeholders associated with the project. It assesses how they are involved in the project and identifies what role they play in the organization. The information in this document can be very perceptive and is meant for limited exchange only. It also contains relevant information about the stakeholders, such as their requirements, expectations, and influence on the project.
Your project is installing 8,000 light fixtures in a new building. Each of the light fixtures is to be installed exactly the same way but you have discovered that some of the fixtures are installed incorrectly. You and the project team meet and agree to fix the fixtures and to install all future fixtures the same way. This is an example of what executing activity?
This is an example of corrective action. The project team will fix the mistake and they have learned from their mistake so it won't happen again.
Answer option C is incorrect. Risk mitigation is defined as monies spent or actions taken to reduce the probability and impact of an identified risk event.
Answer option A is incorrect. A risk response is an action to counteract an identified risk.
Answer option B is incorrect. There may be some team development happening in this instance but we don't have enough information to know for certain. Team development is an activity that brings the whole team cohesion, interdependency, and trust.
You are the project manager of the NHQ project. This project is slightly larger than the TR project, in which you also served as the project manager. You decide to use the actual activity duration of the GTR project as a basis for your current NHQ project. This, you reason, will save time for your project, as the previous project has provided the information. Which one of the following terms best describes the action you are doing in this scenario?
This is an example of analogous estimate as you are creating an analogy between two similar projects. This estimating approach is also known as a top-down estimate type, and is somewhat unreliable.
Answer option C is incorrect. Expert judgment relies on experts, consultants, or subject matter experts to guide your project decisions. An analogous estimate is a form of expert judgment, but this is not the best choice for this question.
Answer option B is incorrect. A bottom-up estimate creates an activity duration estimate for each work package in the WBS. It is the longest estimate type to create, but it also the most reliable.
Answer option D is incorrect. A rough order of magnitude estimate is a quick estimate, usually for project costs, that often has a broad range of variance attached to the estimate.
You are working with your project team to control the project schedule. You will need five inputs to this process throughout your project. Which one of the following is an output of the project schedule control, and NOT an input?
Work performance measurements are created from the work performance information. WPMs are an output of Control schedule, Control cost, and Control scope processes, which are monitoring and controlling processes. WPMs consist of planned versus actual performance indicators with respect to scope, schedule, and cost. They are documented and communicated to the stakeholders and are used to make project activity metrics, such as the following: Planned vs. Actual Technical performance and Scope performance Planned vs. Actual Schedule performance Planned vs. Actual Cost performance
Answer option A is incorrect. Work performance information is an input to the control schedule process and includes information on project progress and activity start and finish information.
Answer option C is incorrect. The project management plan is an input to the control schedule process.
Answer option B is incorrect. The project schedule is an input to the control schedule process.
Beth is the project manager of the KJH project. Sarah is Beth's administrative assistant and Ben is the project team leader. Beth's project has eight virtual teams throughout the world that will be working on the activities relevant to the deliverables in their locales. Thomas, the project sponsor, has told Beth that he is to be kept abreast of all communication between her project and the stakeholders. In this project, who is the lead person responsible for communication with all stakeholders?
Beth, the project manager, is responsible for communication with all stakeholders. According to the PMBOK, the project manager occupies the center of the interactions between stakeholders and the project itself.
Answer option B is incorrect. Sarah may help with the communications, but she is not responsible for the communications.
Answer option A is incorrect. Thomas, the project sponsor, just needs to be kept abreast of the information.
Answer option C is incorrect. The project team leaders for the virtual sites are not responsible for communicating with the project stakeholders.